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Seborrheic dermatitis

      Seborrheic dermatitis presents as red, flaking, greasy-looking patches of skin that are located most commonly on the scalp, nasolabial folds, eyebrows, ears, and chest. In some patients, flexural areas may also be involved. Moreover, the extent of flaking and erythema may vary. Although seborrheic dermatitis in adults may be clinically similar to infantile seborrheic dermatitis (including cradle cap), the former is not common in children. Rather, it tends to make its first appearance around the time of puberty, with the increase in skin lipids that occurs at this time. It is particularly common in adolescents and young adults, and is relatively rare in the middle aged. In patients over the age of 50 years, however, seborrheic dermatitis again becomes quite common [
      • Kligman A.M.
      • McGinley K.J.
      • Leyden J.J.
      The nature of dandruff.
      ,
      • Lynch P.J.
      Dermatologic problems of the head and neck in the aged.
      ]. It is more common in men than in women. Overall, its prevalence in immunocompetent adults is estimated to be between 1% and 3% [
      • Erchiga V.C.
      • Martos O.J.
      • Cassano A.V.
      • Erchiga A.C.
      • Fajardo F.S.
      Malassezia globosa as the causative agent of pityriasis versicolor.
      ]. The incidence of seborrheic dermatitis is unusually high among patients with AIDS, ranging from 30% to 83% [
      • Erchiga V.C.
      • Martos O.J.
      • Cassano A.V.
      • Erchiga A.C.
      • Fajardo F.S.
      Malassezia globosa as the causative agent of pityriasis versicolor.
      ,
      • Farthing C.F.
      • Staughton R.C.D.
      • Payne Rowland C.M.E.
      Skin disease in homosexual patients with AIDS and lesser forms for human T cell leukaemia virus (HTLV III) disease.
      ,
      • Smith K.J.
      • Skelton H.G.
      • Yeager J.
      • Ledsky R.
      • McCarthy W.
      • Baxter D.
      • et al.
      Cutaneous findings in HIV-1 positive patients: a 42-month prospective study.
      ]. In patients with chronic seborrheic dermatitis, the lesions often worsen in the winter; however, the effect of increased sunlight on seborrheic dermatitis is unclear. Although there is some evidence that exposure to sunlight can improve the clinical appearance of seborrheic dermatitis [
      • Berg M.
      Epidemiological studies of the influence of sunlight on the skin.
      ], it has also been reported that some patients may develop seborrheic dermatitis subsequent to psoralen plus type A ultraviolet light therapy [
      • Yegner E.
      Seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face induced by PUVA treatment.
      ].
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