Research Article| Volume 18, ISSUE 4, P577-590, October 01, 2000

Download started.


Modern Approaches To Photoprotection

  • Holly V. DeBuys
    Division of Dermatology (HVD, SBL, JCM, SRP), Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham; the Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (SBL); Chapel Hill Dermatology (SBL), North Carolina;
    Search for articles by this author
  • Stanley B. Levy
    Division of Dermatology (HVD, SBL, JCM, SRP), Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham; the Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (SBL); Chapel Hill Dermatology (SBL), North Carolina;
    Search for articles by this author
  • John C. Murray
    Division of Dermatology (HVD, SBL, JCM, SRP), Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham; the Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (SBL); Chapel Hill Dermatology (SBL), North Carolina;
    Search for articles by this author
  • Doren L. Madey
    SkinCeuticals, Dallas, Texas (DLM)
    Search for articles by this author
  • Sheldon R. Pinnell
    Division of Dermatology (HVD, SBL, JCM, SRP), Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham; the Department of Dermatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (SBL); Chapel Hill Dermatology (SBL), North Carolina;
    Search for articles by this author
      The UV spectrum is divided into the following key regions: UV-C (270 to 290 nm), UV-B (290 to 320 nm), and UV-A (320 to 400 nm). UV-A is further subdividedinto two regions: short-wave UV-A or UV-A II (320 to 340 nm) and long-wave UV-A or UV-A I (340 to 400 nm). UV-C radiation does not normally reach the terrestrial surface because of filtration by ozone and atmospheric moisture. The atmosphere does not protect humans completely from damage by UV-B and UV-A radiation, however.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Dermatologic Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Agrapidis-Paloympis L.E.
        • Nash R.A.
        • Shaath N.A.
        The effect of solvents on the ultraviolet absorbance of sunscreens.
        J Soc Cosmetic Chemists. 1987;
        • Ananthaswamy H.N.
        • Loughlin S.M.
        • Cox P.
        • et al.
        Sunlight and skin cancer: Inhibition of p53 mutations in UV-irradiated mouse skin by sunscreens.
        Nat Med. 1997; 3: 510-514
        • Attilasoy E.
        • Seykora J.
        • Soballe P.
        • et al.
        UVB induces atypical melanocytic lesions and melanoma in human skin.
        Am J Pathol. 1998; 152: 1179-1186
        • Autier P.
        • Dore J.F.
        • Cattaruzza M.S.
        • et al.
        Sunscreen use, wearing clothes, and number of nevi in 6- to 7-year-old European children.
        J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 90: 1873-1880
        • Bech-Thomsen N.
        • Wulf H.C.
        Sunbathers' application of sunscreen is probably inadequate to obtain the sun protection factor assigned to the preparation.
        Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1992; 9: 242-244
        • Bigby M.
        The sunscreen and melanoma controversy.
        Arch Dermatol. 1999; : 1526-1527
        • Bissett D.L.
        • Chatterjee R.
        • Hannon D.P.
        Photoproective effect of superoxide-scavenging antioxidants against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse.
        Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1990; 7: 56-62
        • Black H.S.
        • deGruijl F.R.
        • Forbes P.D.
        • et al.
        Photocarcinogenesis: An overview.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1997; 40: 29-47
        • Boyd A.S.
        • Naylor M.
        • Cameron G.S.
        • et al.
        The effects of chronic sunscreen use on the histologic changes of dermatoheliosis.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995; 33: 941-946
        • Brash D.E.
        • Ziegler A.
        • Jonason A.S.
        • et al.
        Sunlight and sunburn in human skin cancer: p53, apoptosis, and tumor promotion.
        J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1996; 1: 136-142
        • Causes and Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
        An Update. National Academy Press, Washington, DC1982
        • Chardoon A.
        • Moyal D.
        • Hourseau C.
        Persistent pigment-darkening response as a method for evaluation of ultraviolet A protection assays.
        in: Lowe N.J. Shaath N.A. Pathak M.A. Sunscreens: Development, Evaluation, and Regulatory Aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York1997: 559-581
        • Darr D.
        • Combs S.
        • Dunston S.
        • et al.
        Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage.
        Br J Dermatol. 1992; 127: 247-253
        • Darr D.
        • Dunston S.
        • Faust H.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants.
        Acta Derm Venereol. 1996; 76: 264-268
        • Deflandre A.
        • Lang G.
        Photostability assessment of sunscreens: Benzylidene camphor and dibenzoylmethane derivatives.
        Int J Cosmetic Sci. 1988; : 53-62
        • de Laat J.M.
        • de Gruijl F.R.
        The Role of UVA in the aetiology of non-melanoma skin cancer.
        Cancer Surv. 1996; 26: 173-191
        • Diffey B.L.
        Analysis of the risk of skin cancer from sunlight and solaria in subjects living in northern Europe.
        Photo-Dermatology. 1987; 4: 118-126
        • Diffey B.L.
        • Elwood J.M.
        Tables of ambient solar ultraviolet radiation for use in epidemiological studies of malignant melanoma and other disease.
        in: Gallagher R.P. Elwood J.M. Epidemiological Aspects of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston1994: 81-105
        • Diffey B.L.
        • Larko O.
        Clinical climatology.
        Photo-Dermatology. 1984; 1: 30-37
        • Dromgoole S.H.
        • Maibach H.I.
        Sunscreening agent intolerance: Contact and photocontact sensitization and contact urticaria.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990; 22: 1068-1078
        • Eberlein-Konig B.
        • Placzek M.
        • Przybilla B.
        Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998; 38: 45-48
        • Final Monograph for Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use
        Fed Reg. 1999; 64: 27666-27693
        • Fischer T.
        • Bergstrom K.
        Evaluation of customers' complaints about sunscreen cosmetics sold by the Swedish pharmaceutical company.
        Contact Dermatitis. 1991; 25: 319-322
        • Fisher G.J.
        • Wang Z.Q.
        • Datta S.C.
        • et al.
        Pathophysiology of premature skin aging induced by ultraviolet light.
        N Engl J Med. 1997; 337: 1419-1429
        • Foley P.
        • Nixon R.
        • Marks R.
        • et al.
        The frequency of reactions to sunscreens: Results of a longitudinal population-based study on the regular use of sunscreens in Australia.
        Br J Dermatol. 1993; 128: 512-518
        • Forestier S.
        • Lang G.
        Photostable suncare products: Major progress in sun protection.
        in: Altmeyer P. Hoffman K. Stucker M. Skin Cancer and UV Radiation. Springer, Berlin1997: 314-319
        • Fotiades J.
        • Soter N.A.
        • Lim H.W.
        Results of evaluation of 203 patients for photosensitivity in a 7.3-year period.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995; 33: 597-602
        • Freeman S.E.
        • Hacham H.
        • Gange R.W.
        • et al.
        Wavelength dependence of pyrimidine dimer formation in DNA of human skin irradiated in situ with ultraviolet light.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989; 86: 5605-5609
        • Freeman S.E.
        • Ley R.D.
        • Ley K.D.
        Sunscreen protection against UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA of human skin in situ.
        Photo-Dermatology. 1988; 5: 243-247
        • Fuchs J.
        • Kern H.
        Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-α-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: A clinical study using solar simulated radiation.
        Free Rad Biol Med. 1998; 25: 1006-1012
        • Gasparro F.P.
        UV-induced photoproducts of para-aminobenzoid acid.
        Photo-Dermatology. 1985; 2: 151-157
        • Gasparro F.P.
        Sunscreens, Skin Photobiology and Skin Cancer: The Need for UVA Protection and Evaluation of Efficacy.
        Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108: 71-78
        • Gasparro F.P.
        • Mitchnick M.
        • Nash J.F.
        A review of sunscreen safety and efficacy.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1998; 68: 243-256
        • Gonzalez S.
        • Pathak M.A.
        • Cuevas J.
        • et al.
        Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoraleninduced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin.
        Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1997; 13: 50-60
        • Granstein R.D.
        Evidence that sunscreens prevent UV radiation-induced immunosuppression in humans.
        Arch Dermatol. 1995; 131: 1201-1204
        • Green A.
        • Williams G.
        • Neale R.
        • et al.
        Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: A randomised controlled trial.
        Lancet. 1999; 354: 723-729
        • Hanson K.M.
        • Simon J.D.
        Epidermal trans-urocanic acid and the UV-A-induced photoaging of the skin.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998; 95: 10576-10578
        • Henriksen T.
        • Dahlback A.
        • Larsen S.H.
        • et al.
        Ultraviolet-radiation and skin cancer: Effect of an ozone layer depletion.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1990; 51: 579-582
        • Hodges N.D.
        • Moss S.H.
        • Davies D.J.
        The sensitising effect of a sunscreening agent, p-aminobenzoic acid, on near UV induced damage in a repair deficient strain of Escherichia coli..
        Photochem Photobiol. 1977; 26: 493-498
        • Kaidbey K.H.
        The photoprotective potential of the new superpotent sunscreens.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990; 22: 449-452
        • Kang S.
        • Fisher G.
        • Duell E.
        • et al.
        The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine increases the content of the endogenous antioxidant glutathione and prevents UV-induction of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin in vivo [abstr].
        J Invest Derm. 1999; 112: 658
        • Khettab N.
        • Amory M.C.
        • Briand G.
        • et al.
        Photoprotective effect of vitamins A and E on polyamine and oxygenated free radical metabolism in hairless mouse epidermis.
        Biochimie. 1999; 70: 1709-1713
        • Klein K.
        Formulating sunscreen products.
        in: Lowe N.J. Shaath N.A. Pathak M.A. Sunscreens: Development, Evaluation, and Regulatory Aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York1990: 235-266
        • Kripke M.L.
        • Pitcher H.
        • Longstreth J.D.
        Potential carcinogenic impacts of stratospheric ozone depletion.
        Environmental Carcinogen Reviews (J Environ Sci Health). 1989; 7: 53-74
        • Lademann J.
        • Weigmann H.
        • Rickmeyer C.
        • et al.
        Penetration of titanium dioxide microparticles in a sunscreen formulation into the horny layer and the follicular orifice.
        Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 1999; 12: 247-256
        • Lahiri-Chatterjee M.
        • Katiyar S.K.
        • Mohan R.R.
        • et al.
        A flavonoid antioxidant, silymarin, affords exceptionally high protection against tumor promotion in the SENCAR mouse skin tumorigenesis model.
        Cancer Res. 1999; 59: 622-632
        • Lavker R.M.
        • Gerberick G.F.
        • Veres D.
        • et al.
        Cumulative effects from repeated exposures to suberythemal doses of UVB and UVA in human skin.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1995; 32: 53-62
        • Lavker R.M.
        • Veres D.A.
        • Irwin C.J.
        • et al.
        Quantitative assessment of cumulative damage from repetitive exposures to suberythemogenic doses of UVA in human skin.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1995; 62: 348-352
        • Leccia M.T.
        • Richard M.J.
        • Beani J.C.
        • et al.
        Protective effect of selenium and zinc on UV-A damage in human skin fibroblasts.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1993; 58: 548-553
        • Leccia M.T.
        • Richard M.J.
        • Favier A.
        • et al.
        Zinc protects against ultraviolet A1-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cultured human fibroblasts.
        Biol Trace Elem Res. 1999; 69: 177-190
        • Lenique P.
        • Machet L.
        • Vaillant L.
        • et al.
        Contact and photocontact allergy to oxybenzone.
        Contact Dermatitis. 1992; 26: 177-181
        • Levy S.B.
        Sunscreens for photoprotection.
        Dermatol Ther. 1997; 4: 59-71
        • Ley R.D.
        • Fourtanier A.
        Sunscreen protection against ultraviolet radiation-induced pyrimidine dimers in mouse epidermal DNA.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1997; 65: 1007-1011
        • Lim H.W.
        • Cooper K.
        The health impact of solar radiation and prevention strategies: Report of the Environment Council, American Academy of Dermatology.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999; 41: 81-99
        • Lopez-Torres M.
        • Thiele J.J.
        • Shindo Y.
        • et al.
        Topical application of α-tocopherol modulates the antioxidant network and diminishes ultraviolet-induced oxidative damage in murine skin.
        Br J Dermatol. 1998; 138: 207-215
        • Lowe N.J.
        Ultraviolet A claims and testing procedures for OTC sunscreens: A summary and review.
        in: Lowe N.J. Shaath N.A. Pathak M.A. Sunscreens: Development, Evaluation, and Regulatory Aspects. Marcel Dekker, New York1997: 499-512
        • Lowe N.J.
        • Friedlander J.
        Prevention of photodamage with sunprotection and sunscreens.
        in: Gilchrest B.A. Photodamage. Blackwell Science, Cambridge1995: 201-220
        • Lowe N.J.
        • Meyers D.P.
        • Wieder J.M.
        • et al.
        Low doses of repetitive ultraviolet a induce morphologic changes in human skin.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1995; 105: 739-743
        • Lyde C.B.
        • Bergstresser P.R.
        Ultraviolet protection from sun avoidance.
        Dermatol Ther. 1997; 4: 72-78
        • Marks R.
        Summer in Australia: Skin cancer and the great SPF debate.
        Arch Dermatol. 1995; 131: 462-464
        • McKenzie R.
        • Connor B.
        • Bodeker G.
        Increased summertime UV radiation in New Zealand in response to ozone loss.
        Science. 1999; 285: 1709-1711
        • Menter J.M.
        • Hollins T.D.
        • Sayre R.M.
        • et al.
        Protection against UV photocarcinogenesis by fabric materials.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994; 31: 711-716
        • Mitchnick M.
        • Fairhurst D.
        • Pinnell S.
        Microfine zinc oxide (Z-Cote) as a photostable UVA/UVB sunblock agent.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999; 40: 85-90
        • Molina M.J.
        • Rowland F.S.
        Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: Chlorine atom-catalysed destruction of ozone.
        Nature. 1974; 249: 810-812
        • Murray J.C.
        • Darr D.
        • Reich J.
        • et al.
        Photoprotection of human skin by topical vitamin C.
        Clin Res. 1992; 40: 143A
        • Nakamura T.
        • Pinnell S.R.
        • Darr D.
        • et al.
        Vitamin C abrogates the deleterious effects of UVB radiation on cutaneous immunity by a mechanism that does not depend on TNF-α.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1997; 109: 20-24
        • Naylor M.F.
        • Farmer K.C.
        The case for sunscreens: A review of their use in preventing actinic damage and neoplasia.
        Arch Dermatol. 1997; 133: 1146-1154
        • Nomura T.
        • Nakajima H.
        • Hongyo T.
        • et al.
        Induction of cancer, actinic keratosis, and specific p53 mutations by UVB light in human skin maintained in severe combined immunodeficient mice.
        Cancer Res. 1999; 57: 2081-2084
        • Ong C.S.
        • Keogh A.M.
        • Kossard S.
        • et al.
        Skin cancer in Australian heart transplant recipients.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999; 40: 27-34
        • Parat M.O.
        • Richard M.J.
        • Pollet S.
        • et al.
        Zinc and DNA fragmentation in keratinocyte apoptosis: its inhibitory effect in UVB irradiated cells.
        J Photochem Photobiol. 1997; 37: 101-106
        • Parrish J.A.
        Responses of skin to visible and ultraviolet radiation.
        in: Goldsmith L.A. Biochemistry and Physiology of the Skin. Oxford University Press, New York1983: 713-733
        • Pinnell S.R.
        • Fairhurst D.
        • Gillies R.
        • et al.
        Microfine zinc oxide (Z-Cote) is a superior sunscreen ingredient to microfine titanium dioxide.
        Dermatol Surg. 2000; 26: 309-314
        • Pinnell S.R.
        • Young H.
        • Omar M.
        • et al.
        Pharmacokinetics of topical l-ascorbic acid in skin.
        J Invest Dermatol. 2000; 114: 884
        • Podda M.
        • Traber M.G.
        • Packer L.
        Alpha-lipoate: Antioxidant properties and effects on skin.
        in: Fuchs J. Packer L. Zimmer G. Lipoic Acid in Health and Disease. Marcel Dekker, New York1997: 163-180
        • Pogoda J.M.
        • Preston-Martin S.
        Solar radiation, lip protection, and lip cancer risk in Los Angeles County women (California, United States).
        Cancer Causes Control. 1996; 7: 458-463
        • Record I.R.
        • Jannes M.
        • Dreosti I.E.
        Protection by zinc against UVA- and UVB-induced cellular and genomic damage in vivo and in vitro.
        Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996; 53: 19-25
        • Reeve V.E.
        • Nishimura N.
        • Bosnic M.
        • et al.
        Dietary zinc, photoimmunosuppression and metallothionein (MT).
        in: Klaassen C. Metallothionein IV. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel1999: 445-449
        • Richard M.J.
        • Guiraud P.
        • Leccia M.T.
        • et al.
        Effect of zinc supplementation on resistance of cultured human skin fibroblasts toward oxidant stress.
        Biol Trace Elem Res. 1993; 37: 187-199
        • Rieger M.M.
        Photostability of cosmetic ingredients on the skin.
        Cosmetics and Toiletries. 1997; 112: 65-72
        • Rigel D.S.
        • Rigel E.G.
        • Rigel A.C.
        Effects of altitude and latitude on ambient UVB radiation.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999; 40: 114-116
        • Runger T.M.
        Role of UVA in the pathogenesis of melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer—a short review.
        Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1999; 15: 212-216
        • Sayre R.M.
        • Dowdy J.C.
        Photostability testing of avobenzone.
        Cosmetics and Toiletries. 1999; 114: 85-91
        • Schauder S.
        • Ippen H.
        Contact and photocontact sensitivity to sunscreens: Review of a 15-year experience and of the literature.
        Contact Dermatitis. 1997; 37: 221-232
        • Seite S.
        • Moyal D.
        • Richard S.
        • et al.
        Mexoryl SX: A broad absorption UVA filter protects human skin from the effects of repeated suberythemal doses of UVA.
        J Photochem Photobiol B Biol. 1998; 44: 69-76
        • Setlow R.B.
        Spectral regions contributing to melanoma: A personal view.
        J Investi Dermatol Symp Proc. 1999; : 46-49
        • Shaath N.A.
        The chemistry of sunscreens.
        Cosmetics and Toiletries. 1986; 101: 55-70
        • Shaath N.A.
        Encyclopedia of UV absorbers for sunscreen products.
        Cosmetics and Toiletries. 1987; 102: 21-39
        • Shaath N.A.
        On the theory of ultraviolet absorption by sunscreen chemicals.
        Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemistry. 1987; 82: 193
        • Shaath N.A.
        • Fares H.M.
        • Klein K.
        Photodegredation of sunscreen chemicals: Solvent considerations.
        Cosmetics and Toiletries. 1990; 105: 41-44
        • Shaw A.A.
        • Wainschel L.A.
        • Shetlar M.D.
        Photoaddition of p-aminobenzoic acid to thymine and thymidine.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1992; 55: 657-663
        • Shindo Y.
        • Witt E.
        • Han D.
        • et al.
        Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1994; 102: 122-124
        • Shindo Y.
        • Witt E.
        • Packer L.
        Antioxidant defense mechanisms in murine epidermis and dermis and their responses to ultraviolet light.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1993; 100: 260-265
        • Sliney D.H.
        • Wood Jr, R.L.
        • Moscato P.M.
        • et al.
        Ultraviolet exposure in the outdoor environment: Measurements of ambient ultraviolet exposure levels at large zenith angles.
        in: Grandolfo M. Rindi A. Sliney D.H. Light, Lasers, and Synchrotron Radiation: A Health Risk Assessment. Plenum Press, New York1990: 169-180
        • Stanford D.G.
        • Georgouras K.
        New developments in sun-protective clothing.
        Skin Cancer Foundation Journal. 1996; 14: 36-40
        • Stary A.
        • Robert C.
        • Sarasin A.
        Deleterious effects of ultraviolet A radiation in human cells.
        Muta Res. 1997; 383: 1-8
        • Steinberg D.C.
        Sunscreen encyclopedia regulatory update.
        Cosmetics and Toiletries. 1996; 111: 77-86
        • Stolarski R.S.
        • Krueger A.J.
        • Schoeberl M.R.
        • et al.
        Nimbus 7 satellite measurements of the springtime Antarctic ozone decrease.
        Nature. 1986; 322: 808-811
        • Streilein J.W.
        UVB susceptibility: Possible relationship to photoaging and photocarcinogenesis.
        in: Gilchrest B.A. Photodamage. Blackwell Science, Cambridge1995: 68-80
        • Sutherland J.C.
        • Griffin K.P.
        P-Aminobenzoic acid can sensitize the formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA: Direct chemical evidence.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1984; 40: 391-394
        • Tarras-Wahlberg N.
        • Stenhagen G.
        • Larko O.
        • et al.
        Changes in ultraviolet absorption of sunscreens after ultraviolet irradiation.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1999; 113: 547-553
        • Thompson S.C.
        • Jolley D.
        • Marks R.
        Reduction of solar keratoses by regular sunscreen use.
        N Engl J Med. 1993; 329: 1147-1151
        • Toda K.
        • Pathak M.A.
        Determination of sun protection values of three test products under indoor and outdoor test conditions using Japanese volunteers.
        Journal of the Japanese Cosmetic Science Society. 1988; 12: 139-144
        • Trevisi P.
        • Vincenzi C.
        • Chieregato C.
        • et al.
        Sunscreen sensitization: A three-year study.
        Dermatology. 1994; 189: 55-57
        • Tyrrell R.M.
        UVA (320-380 nm) radiation as an oxidative stress.
        in: Sies H. Oxidative Stress, Oxidants and Antioxidants. Academic Press, San Diego1991: 57-83
        • Tyrrell R.M.
        Oxidant, antioxidant status and photocarcinogenesis: The role of gene activation.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1996; 63: 380-386
        • Urbach F.
        Ultraviolet A transmission by modern sunscreens: Is there a real risk?.
        Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 1992; 9: 237-241
        • Walter J.F.
        Evaluation of seven sunscreens on hairless mouse skin.
        Arch Dermatol. 1981; 117: 547-550
        • Walter J.F.
        • DeQuoy P.R.
        The hairless mouse as a model for evaluating sunscreens: Prevention of ultraviolet B inhibition of epidermal DNA synthesis.
        Arch Dermatol. 1980; 116: 419-421
        • Wamer W.G.
        • Yin J.J.
        • Wei R.R.
        Oxidative damage to nucleic acids photosensitized by titanium dioxide.
        Free Rad Biol Med. 1997; 23: 851-858
        • Wenczl E.
        • Pool S.
        • Timmerman A.J.
        • et al.
        Physiological doses of ultraviolet irradiation induce DNA strand breaks in cultured human melanocytes, as detected by means of an immunochemical assay.
        Photochem Photobiol. 1997; 66: 828-830
        • Wlaschek M.
        • Wenk J.
        • Brenneisen P.
        • et al.
        Singlet oxygen is an early intermediate in cytokine-dependent ultraviolet-A induction of interstitial collagenase in human dermal fibroblasts in vitro.
        FEBS Lett. 1997; 413: 239-242
        • Zhao J.
        • Wang J.
        • Chen Y.
        • et al.
        Anti-tumor-promoting activity of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from grape seeds in the mouse skin two-stage initiation-promotion protocol and identification of procyanidin B5-3′-gallate as the most effective antioxidant constituent.
        Carcinogenesis. 1999; 20: 1737-1745