URTICARIA AND ANGIOEDEMA

Current Therapy
      Urticaria (fr. L. urtica = nettle) was described by Heberden
      • Heberden W.
      Of the Nettle Rash.
      in 1772 as follows: "The little elevations upon the skin in the 'nettle' rash often appear involuntarily, especially if the skin be rubbed, or scrubbed, and seldom stay many hours in the same place, and sometimes not many minutes. There is no body exempt from 'them' and by far the greatest number experience no other evil from it besides the intolerable anguish arising from the itching…" He recommended bland cooling applications. This accurate clinical description of urticaria cannot be improved upon, 200 years later. Subsequent recognition that the hives could have an "acute" or "chronic" or recurrent course pointed to a pathodynamic variability, which then suggested a possible spectrum of pathophysiologic responses to a stimulus or stimuli. In essence, an acute episode of hives is short-lived because with removal or disappearance of the trigger, the urticarial response dissipates. Chronic hives persist until the trigger (which is rarely identified) is switched off. The goal of managing urticaria is to identify and then to remove the trigger of the process, otherwise one can only hope for symptomatic relief.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      Purchase one-time access
      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.
      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.
      Subscribe to Dermatologic Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Anderson J.A.
        • Sogn D.D.
        Adverse food reactions that involve or are suspected of involving immune mechanisms: An anatomical.
        in: American Academy of Allergy and Immunology Committee on Adverse Reactions to Foods. National Institute on Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Washington DC1984: 43-102
        • Atkins F.M.
        The diagnosis of urticaria.
        in: Schocket A.L. Clinical Management of Urticaria and Anaphylaxis. Marcel Dekker, New York1993: 141-156
        • Atkins F.M.
        Food induced urticaria.
        in: Metcalfe D.D. Sampson H.A. Simon R.A. Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford1991: 129-138
        • Baker H.
        Drug reactions.
        in: Rook A. Wilkinson D.S. Ebling F.J.C. Textbook of Dermatology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford1986: 1239-1279
        • Ballantyne J.C.
        • Loach A.B.
        • Carr D.B.
        Itching after epidural and spinal opiates.
        Pain. 1988; 33: 149-160
        • Bedard P.M.
        • Brunet C.
        • Pelletier G.
        • et al.
        Increased compound 48/80 induced local histamine release from nonlesional skin of patients with chronic urticaria.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986; 78: 1121-1125
        • Benyon R.C.
        • Lowman M.A.
        • Church M.K.
        Human skin mast cells: Their dispersion, purification and secretory.
        J Immunol. 1987; 138: 8610-8867
        • Bleehen S.S.
        • Thomas S.E.
        • Greaves M.W.
        • et al.
        Cimetidine and chlorpheniramine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: A multi-center randomized double-blind study.
        Br J Dermatol. 1987; 117: 81-91
        • Boonk W.J.
        • VanKetel W.G.
        Br J Dermatol. 1982; 106: 183-190
        • Bork K.
        Drug-induced pemphigus diseases.
        in: Bork K. Cutaneous Side Effects of Drugs. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia1988: 115-122
        • Bork K.
        Urticaria and angioedema.
        in: Bork K. Cutaneous Side Effects of Drugs. WB Saunders, Philadelphia1988: 78-97
        • Bos J.D.
        • Kapsenberg M.L.
        The skin immune system: Progress in cutaneous biology.
        Immunol Today. 1993; 14: 75-78
        • Bressler R.B.
        • Sowell K.
        • Huston D.P.
        Therapy of chronic idiopathic urticaria with nifedipine: Demonstration of beneficial effect in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trial.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1989; 83: 756-763
        • Burdick A.E.
        • Mathias C.G.T.
        The contact urticaria syndrome.
        Dermatol Clin. 1985; 3: 71-84
        • Burnett J.W.
        • Calton G.J.
        Use of IgE antibody determinations in cutaneous coelenterate envenomations.
        Cutis. 1981; 27: 50-52
        • Cappugi P.
        • Lotti T.
        • Tsampau D.
        • et al.
        Capsaicin treatment of different dermatological affections with itching.
        Skin Pharmacol. 1989; 4: 230
        • Casale T.B.
        Histamine H1 and H2 receptors.
        in: Settepane G.A. H1 and H2 Receptors. OceanSide Publications, Providence, RI1988-89: 14-20
        • Champion R.H.
        • Roberts S.O.B.
        • Carpenter R.G.
        • et al.
        Urticaria and angioedema: A review of 554 patients.
        Br J Dermatol. 1969; 81: 588-597
        • Charous B.L.
        • Hamilton R.G.
        • Yunginger J.W.
        Occupational latex exposure: Characteristics of contact and systemic reactions in 47 workers.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994; 94: 12-18
        • Church M.K.
        • Benyon R.C.
        • Rees P.H.
        • et al.
        Functional of human mast cells.
        in: Galli S.J. Austen K.R. Mast cell and basophil differentiation and function in health and disease. Raven Press, New York1989: 161-170
        • Clayton D.E.
        • Busse W.
        Anaphylaxis to wine.
        Clin Allergy. 1980; : 341-343
        • Coleman J.W.
        • Godfrey R.C.
        The number and affinity of IgE receptors on dispersed human lung mast cells.
        Immunology. 1981; 44: 859
        • Donaldson V.H.
        • Evans R.R.
        A biochemical abnormality in hereditary edema.
        Am J Med. 1963; 35: 37-44
        • Dreborg S.
        • Backman A.
        • Basomba A.
        • et al.
        Skin test used in Type I allergy testing. Position paper of the European Acad Allergy Clin Immunol.
        Allergy. 1989; 44: 1-59
        • Ertel N.H.
        Hyperthyroidism and urticaria.
        JAMA. 1985; 254: 2253-2254
        • Farnam J.
        • Grant J.A.
        Angioedema.
        Dermatol Clin. 1985; 3: 85-95
        • Figuerdo A.
        • Fontes-Ribiero C.A.
        • Goncalo M.
        • et al.
        Mechanism of action of doxepin in the treatment of chronic urticaria.
        Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 1990; 4: 147-158
        • Fisher A.A.
        Contact urticaria.
        in: Fisher A.A. Contact Dermatitis. Lea & Febiger, 1986: 686-709
        • Foreman J.C.
        • Piotrowski W.
        Peptides and histamine release.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984; 74: 127-131
        • Fradin M.S.
        • Ellis C.N.
        • Goldfarb M.T.
        • et al.
        Oral cyclosporin A for severe chronic idiopathic urticaria.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991; 25: 1065-1067
        • Frick O.L.
        Serum sickness.
        in: Middleton E. Reed C.E. Ellis E.F. Allergy: Principles and Practice. Mosby, St. Louis1978
        • Fye Kh
        • Sack K.E.
        Rheumatic diseases.
        in: Stites D.P. Stobo J.D. Wells J.V. Basic and Clinical Immunology. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CT1987: 365-385
        • Galli S.J.
        New concepts about the mast cell.
        N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 257-264
        • Gammon W.R.
        • Wheeler C.E.
        Urticarial vasculitis: Report of a case and review of the literature.
        Arch Dermatol. 1979; 115: 76-80
        • Geha R.
        • Buckley M.D.
        • Greenberger P.
        • et al.
        Aspartame is no more likely than placebo to cause Results of multicenter, randomized, DBPC crossover study.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993; 92: 513-520
        • Gelfand J.A.
        • Sherins R.J.
        • Alling D.W.
        • et al.
        Treatment of HAE with danazol.
        Reversal of clinical and biochemical N Engl J Med. 1976; 295: 1444-1448
      1. WC Gentry SE Wolverton Drug Reactions. Presentation at Drug Reactions Workshop. Academy of Dermatology Annual Meeting, 1990.

        • Grattan C.E.H.
        • Francis D.M.
        • Slater N.G.P.
        Plasmapheresis for severe, chronic idiopathic urticaria.
        Lancet. 1992; 339: 1078-1080
        • Green S.L.
        • Reed C.E.
        • Schroeter A.L.
        Double-blind cross-over study comparing doxepin with diphenhydramine for the treatment of chronic urticaria.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985; 12: 669-675
        • Greenberger P.A.
        Contrast media reactions.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1984; 74: 600-605
        • Grzelewska-Rzymowska I.
        • Szmidt M.
        • Rozniecki J.
        Aspirin-induced urticaria: A clinical study.
        J Invest Allergy Clin Immunol. 1992; 2: 39-42
        • Gupta M.A.
        • Gupta A.K.
        • Ellis C.N.
        drugs in dermatology.
        Arch Dermatol. 1987; 113: 647-652
        • Heavey D.J.
        • Kobza-Black A.
        • et al.
        PGD2 and histamine release in cold urticaria.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986; 78: 458-461
        • Heberden W.
        Of the Nettle Rash.
        in: Medical Transactions. 2. College of Physicians, London1772: 173 (, published by the)
        • Heilborn H.
        • Hjemdahl H.H.
        • Daleskog M.
        • et al.
        Comparison of subcutaneous injection and high-dose inhalation of epinephrine-implications for self-treatment to prevent anaphylaxis.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986; 78: 1174-1179
        • Herrera A.M.
        • deShazo R.D.
        Current concepts in anaphylaxis:pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
        Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 1992; 3: 517-534
        • Hide M.
        • Francis D.M.
        • Grattan C.E.H.
        • et al.
        Autoantibodies against the high-affinity IgE receptor as a cause of histamine release in chronic urticaria.
        N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 1599-1604
        • Hirschmann J.V.
        • Lawlor F.
        • et al.
        Cholinergic urticaria.
        Arch Dermatol. 1987; 123: 462-467
        • Jaffer A.M.
        Sulfasalazine for patients with chronic urticaria requiring corticosteroids.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991; 88: 964-965
        • James J.
        • Warin R.P.
        An assessment of the role of Candida albicans and food yeasts in chronic urticaria.
        Br J Dermatol. 1971; 84: 227-235
        • Juhlin L.
        • Malmros-Enander I.
        Solar urticaria: Mechanism and treatment.
        Photodermatology. 1986; 3: 164-168
        • Kao N.L.
        Psychologic symptoms in chronic urticaria.
        Ann Allergy. 1994; 72: 229-233
        • Kaplan A.P.
        Urticaria: The relationship of duration of lesion to pathogenesis.
        Allergy Proc. 1990; 11: 15-18
        • Kaplan A.P.
        Urticaria and angioedema.
        in: Kaplan A.P. Allergy. Churchill Livingstone, New York1985: 439-471
        • Kaplan A.P.
        • Horakova Z.
        • Katz S.I.
        Assessment of tissue fluid histamine levels in patients with urticaria.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1978; 61: 350-354
        • Kennard C.D.
        • Ellis C.N.
        Pharmacologic therapy for urticaria.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991; 125: 176-189
        • Kennes B.
        • DeMaubeuge J.
        • Delespesse S.
        Treatment of chronic urticaria with beta-adrenergic stimulant.
        Clin Allergy. 1977; 7: 35-42
        • Kidd J.M.
        • Cohen S.H.
        • Sosman A.J.
        • et al.
        Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1983; 71: 407-411
        • Koblenzer C.S.
        The urticarias.
        in: Psychocutaneous Disease. Grune & Stratton, Orlando, FL1987: 191-207
        • Kobza-Black A.
        New approaches in treatment of physical urticarias.
        Clin Exp Dermatol. 1982; 7: 301-310
        • Korman N.J.
        Pemphigus—An update.
        Prog Dermatol. 1990; 24: 1-6
      2. A Kulczycki, Letter to editor (response to ref 94). J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995, in press

        • Lanigan S.W.
        • Adams S.J.
        • Gilkes J.J.H.
        • et al.
        Association between urticaria and hypothyroidism.
        Lancet. 1984; 1: 1476
        • Lavaud F.
        • Prevost A.
        • Cossart C.
        • et al.
        Allergy to latex, avacado pear, and banana.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1995; 95: 557-564
        • Leikola J.
        Blood banking and immunohematology.
        in: Stites D.P. Stobo J.D. Wells J.V. Basic and Clinical Immunology. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CT1987: 304-314
        • Lieberman P.
        Anaphylactoid reaction to radiocontrast material.
        Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 1992; 12: 649-670
        • Liu H.N.
        • Pan L.N.
        • Hwang S.C.
        • et al.
        Nifedipine for the treatment of chronic urticaria: A double-blind-crossover study.
        J Dermatol Treatment. 1990; 1: 187-189
        • Lin R.Y.
        A perspective on penicillin allergy.
        Arch Intern Med. 1992; 152: 930-937
        • Lotti T.
        • Teofoli M.D.
        • Tsampau D.
        Treatment of aquagenic pruritus with topical capsaicin cream.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994; 30: 232-235
        • Lowman M.A.
        • Benyon R.C.
        • Church M.K.
        Characterization of neuropeptide induced histamine released from human dispersed skin mast cells.
        Br J Pharmacol. 1988; 95: 121-130
        • Malkinson F.D.
        Colchicine: New uses of an old old drug.
        Arch Dermatol. 1982; 118: 453-457
        • Malone M.H.
        • Metcalfe D.D.
        Histamine in foods: Its possible role in non-allergic adverse reactions to ingestants.
        N Engl Reg Allergy Proc. 1986; 7: 241-245
        • Manning M.E.
        • Stevenson D.D.
        • Mathison D.A.
        Reactions to aspirin and other NSAIDs.
        Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 1992; 12: 611-631
        • Mansfield L.E.
        • Smith J.A.
        • Nelson H.S.
        Greater inhibition of dermographia with a combination of H1 and H2 antagonists.
        Ann Allergy. 1983; 50: 264-270
        • Matthews C.N.A.
        • Kirby J.D.
        • James J.
        • et al.
        Dermographism reduction in wheal size by chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine.
        Br J Dermatol. 1973; 88: 279-282
        • Maulitz R.M.
        • Pratt D.S.
        • Schocket A.L.
        Exercise-induced anaphylactic reaction to shellfish.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1979; 63: 433-434
        • Maxwell D.L.
        • Atkinson B.A.
        • Spur B.W.
        • et al.
        Skin responses to intradermal histamine and leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4 in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria and in normal subjects.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990; 86: 759-765
        • Metcalfe D.D.
        Acute anaphylaxis and urticaria in children and adults.
        in: Schocket A.L. Clinical Management of Urticaria and Anaphylaxis. Marcel Dekker, New York1993: 1-20
        • Metzger W.J.
        • Grehm J.
        • Halverson P.C.
        • et al.
        C1 INH deficiency and angioedema. A spectrum of disease.
        Ann Allergy. 1984; 52: 285
        • Mitchell J.C.
        • Fisher A.A.
        Dermatitis due to plants and spices.
        in: Fisher A.A. Contact Dermatitis. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia1986: 418-453
        • Millins J.L.
        • Randle H.W.
        • Solley G.O.
        • et al.
        The therapeutic response of urticarial vasculitis to indomethacin.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1980; 3: 349-355
        • Monroe E.W.
        Treatment of urticaria.
        Dermatol Clin. 1985; 4: 51-55
        • Muramatsu C.
        • Tanabe E.
        Urticarial vasculitis.
        Response to dapsone and colchicine [letter]. 1985; 13: 1055
        • Natbony S.F.
        • Phillips M.E.
        • Elias J.M.
        • et al.
        Histologic studies of chronic idiopathic urticaria.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1983; 71: 177-183
        • Neittaanmaki H.
        Cold urticaria. Clinical findings in 220 patients.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985; 13: 636-644
        • Newcomb R.W.
        • Nelson H.
        Dermatographia mediated by IgE.
        Am J Med. 1973; 54: 174-180
        • Nightingale S.L.
        Warnings issued on non-sedating antihistamines terfenadine and astemizole.
        JAMA. 1992; 268: 705
        • Nolte H.
        Update: Clinical aspects of basophil histamine release.
        Immunol Allergy Pract. 1992; 14: 255-263
        • Nossal G.J.V.
        The basic components of the immune system.
        N Engl J Med. 1987; 316: 1320-1325
        • Ortolani C.
        • Ispano M.
        Lini Rev Allergy. 1992; 10: 325-347
        • Pasricha J.S.
        • Paricha A.
        • Prakish D.M.
        Role of gastrointestinal parasites in urticaria.
        Ann Allergy. 1972; 30: 348-351
        • Paton W.D.M.
        Histmine release by compounds of simple chemical structure.
        Pharmacol Rev. 1957; 9: 269-328
        • Patterson R.
        • DeSwarte R.D.
        • Greenberger P.A.
        • et al.
        Drug allergy and protocols for management of drug allergies.
        Allergy Proc. 1994; 249
        • Patterson R.
        • Mellies C.J.
        • Blankenship M.L.
        • et al.
        Vibratory angioedema: A hereditary type of physical hypersensitivity.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1972; 50: 174-182
        • Peachell P.T.
        • MacGlashan Jr, D.W.
        • Lichtenstein L.M.
        • et al.
        Regulation of human basophil and lung mast cell function by CAMP.
        J Immunol. 1988; 140: 571
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • Pfeffer J.M.
        • Lewis R.A.
        • et al.
        Systemic hemodynamic effects of leukotrienes C4 and D4 in the rat.
        Am J Physiol. 1983; 244: H628-H633
        • Phanuphak P.
        • Schocket A.L.
        • Arroyave C.M.
        • et al.
        Skin histamine in patients with urticaria.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1980; 65: 371-375
        • Pitts J.S.
        • Donaldson V.H.
        • Forristal J.
        • et al.
        Remissions induced in hereditary angioedema with an attenuated androgen (danazol): Correlation between concentrations of C1-inhibitor and fourth and second components of complement.
        J Lab Clin Med. 1978; 92: 501-507
        • Quaranta J.H.
        • Rohr A.S.
        • Rachelefsky G.S.
        • et al.
        The natural history and response to therapy of chronic urticaria and angioedema.
        Ann Allergy. 1989; 62: 421-424
        • Reiner D.M.
        • Frishman W.H.
        • Luftshein S.
        • et al.
        Adverse cutaneous reactions from cardiovascular drug therapy.
        NYS J Med. 1992; : 137-147
        • Reisman R.E.
        Current concepts: Insect stings.
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 331: 523-527
        • Rice M.C.
        • Lieberman P.
        • Siegle R.L.
        • et al.
        In vitro histamine release induced by radiocontrast media and various chemical analogs in reactor and control subjects.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1983; 72: 180-186
        • Riott I.
        • Brostoff J.
        • Male D.
        Antigen-antibody reactions.
        in: Riott I. Immunology. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis1985: 6.1-6.5
        • Riott I.
        • Brostoff J.
        • Male D.
        Hypersensitivity-Type III.
        in: Riott I. Brostoff J. Male D. Immunology. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis1988: 21.1-21.10
        • Robertson I.
        • Greaves M.W.
        Responses of human skin blood vessels to synthetic histamine analogues.
        Br J Pharmacol. 1978; 5: 319-327
        • Rook A.
        Skin diseases caused by arthropods and other venomous or noxious animals.
        in: Rook A. Wilkinson D.S. Ebling F.J.G. Textbook of Dermatology. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford1986: 1031-1080
        • Sampson H.A.
        • Metcalfe D.D.
        Food allergies.
        JAMA. 1992; 268: 2840-2844
        • Schuller D.E.
        Childhood urticaria.
        Immunol Allergy Practice. 1986; 9: 301-307
        • Schwartz L.B.
        Mast cells: Function and contents.
        Curr Opinion Immunol. 1994; 6: 91-97
        • Schwartz L.
        • Huff T.
        Biology of mast cells and basophils.
        in: Middleton E. Reed C.E. Ellis E.F. Allergy: Principles and Practice. 8. CV Mosby, St. Louis1993: 135-169
        • Schwartz L.B.
        • Huff T.F.
        Mast cells.
        in: Crystal R.G. West J.B. The Lung: Scientific Foundations. Raven Press, New York1991: 601-615
        • Schwartz L.B.
        • Irani A.M.
        • et al.
        Quantitation of histamine, tryptase, and chymase in dispersed human T and TC cells.
        J Immunol. 1987; 138: 2611-2615
        • Shalit M.
        • Schwartz L.B.
        • von Allmen
        • et al.
        Release of histamine and tryptase during continuous and interrupted cutaneous challenge with allergen in humans.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990; 86: 117
        • Shertzer C.L.
        • Lookingbill D.P.
        Effects of relaxation therapy and hypnotizability in chronic urticaria.
        Arch Dermatol. 1987; 123: 913-916
        • Shoemaker R.J.
        • Levine M.I.
        • Shipman W.G.
        • et al.
        A search for the affective determinates of chronic urticaria.
        Am J Psychiatry. 1962; 1: 846-849
        • Sibbald R.G.
        Physical urticaria.
        Dermatol Clin. 1984; 4: 57-69
        • Sibbald R.G.
        • Cheema A.S.
        • Lozinski A.
        • et al.
        Chronic urticaria: Evaluation of the role of physical, immunologic, and other contributory factors.
        Int J Dermatol. 1991; 30: 381-386
        • Sibbald R.G.
        • Kobza-Black A.
        • et al.
        Aquagenic urticaria: Evidence of cholinergic and histaminergic basis.
        Br J Dermatol. 1981; 105: 297-302
        • Simons F.E.R.
        • Simons K.J.
        Antihistamines.
        in: Middleton E. Reed C.E. Allergy: Principles and Practice. C.V. Mosby, St. Louis1990
        • Simons F.E.R.
        • Simons K.J.
        The pharmacology and use of H1 receptor-antagonist drugs.
        N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 1663-1670
        • Slater J.E.
        Latex allergy.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994; 94: 139-149
        • Soter N.A.
        Biology of the dermis and pathophysiology of urticaria/angioedema and cutaneous necrotizing venulitis.
        in: Soter N. Baden H.P. Pathophysiology of Dermatologic Diseases. McGraw-Hill, New York1991: 329-348
        • Soter N.A.
        Treatment of urticaria and angioedema: low-sedating H1-type antihistamines.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991; 24: 1084-1087
        • Soter N.A.
        • Lewis R.A.
        • Corey E.J.
        • et al.
        Local effects of synthetic leukotrienes in human skin.
        J Invest Dermatol. 1983; 80: 115-119
        • Spangler D.L.
        • Vanderpool G.E.
        • Carroll M.S.
        • et al.
        Terbutaline in the treatment of chronic urticaria.
        Ann Allergy. 1980; 45: 246-250
        • Stafford C.T.
        Urticaria as a sign of systemic disease.
        Ann Allergy. 1990; 64: 264-270
        • Stites D.P.
        • Stobo J.D.
        • Wells J.V.
        Glossary of terms.
        in: Basic & Clinical Immunology. ed 6. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CT1987: 693
        • Sussman G.L.
        • Harvey R.P.
        • Schocket A.L.
        Delayed pressure urticaria.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1982; 70: 337-342
        • Taylor S.L.
        • Hui J.V.
        • Lyons D.E.
        Toxicology of scombroid poisoning.
        in: Raeglis E.P. Seafood Toxins. American Chemical Society, Washington DC1984: 417-430
        • Tharp M.D.
        • Kagey-Sobtka A.
        • Fox C.C.
        • et al.
        Functional heterogeneity of human mast cells from different anatomic sites: In vitro responses to morphine sulfate.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1987; 79: 646-653
        • Thorman J.
        • Laurberg G.
        • Zachariae H.
        Oral sodium cromoglycate in chronic urticaria.
        Allergy. 1980; 35: 139-141
        • Toogood J.H.
        Risk of anaphylaxis in patients receiving beta-blocker drugs.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1988; 81: 1-5
        • USP D.I.
        Adrenocorticoids/corticotropin (Systemic Glucocorticoid Effects). ed 15. Mack Printing, Easton1995: 878-906
        • USP D.I.
        Antihistamines (Systemic).
        in: Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. ed 9. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville, MD1990: 317
        • USP D.I.
        Calcium channel blocking agents (Systemic). ed 15. Mack Printing, Easton1995: 609-625
        • USP D.I.
        Cromolyn (Systemic/Oral-Local). ed 15. Mack Printing, Easton1993: 991-993
        • Vaida G.A.
        • et al.
        Testing for hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic urticaria and angioedema.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1983; 72: 193-200
        • VanArsdel P.P.
        Pseudoallergic drug reactions: Introduction and general review.
        Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 1991; 11: 635-644
        • Veronesi S.
        • Palmerio B.
        • Negosanti M.
        • et al.
        Urticaria and giardiasis.
        Dermatologica. 1983; 166: 42-43
        • Wanderer A.A.
        Cold urticaria syndromes: Historical background, diagnostic classification, clinical and laboratory characteristics, pathogenesis, and management.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1990; 85: 965-981
        • Warin R.P.
        • Champion R.H.
        Acute and chronic urticaria: Aetiology.
        in: Warin R.P. Champion R.H. Urticaria. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia1974: 33-73
        • Warin R.P.
        • Champion R.H.
        Acute and chronic urticaria: Treatment.
        in: Warin R.P. Champion R.H. Urticaria. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia1974: 100-112
        • Warin R.P.
        • Champion R.H.
        Physical urticaria.
        in: Warin R.P. Champion R.H. Urticaria. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia1974: 120-160
        • Wasserman S.I.
        The mast cell and its mediators.
        in: Goldsmith L. Biochemistry and Physiology of the Skin. Oxford University Press, New York1983: 878-898
        • Wasserman S.I.
        • Marquardt D.L.
        Anaphylaxis.
        in: Middleton E. Reed C.D. Ellis E.F. Allergy: Principle and Practice. C.V. Mosby, St Louis1988: 1365-1376
        • Weary P.E.
        • Guerramt J.L.
        Chronic urticaria in association with dermatophytosis: Response to the administration of griseofulvin.
        Arch Dermatol. 1967; 95: 400-401
        • Wong R.C.
        • Fairley J.A.
        • Ellis C.N.
        Dermographism: A review.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984; 11: 643-652
        • Zeitz H.J.
        Pharmacologic properties of foods.
        in: Metcalfe D.D. Sampson H.A. Simon R.A. Food Allergy—Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford1993: 311-318
        • Zondlo J.
        • Muthiah R.
        • Knoll R.
        • et al.
        Helicobacter Pylori: A new cause of urticaria and exercise anaphylaxis—Identification of HP allergens.
        J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994; 93: 220-225