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- Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin: a single surgeon’s experience with 53 consecutive patients.Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2011; 35: 1079-1086
- Primary focal hyperhidrosis: scope of the problem.Cutis. 2007; 79: 5-17
- Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of primary focal hyperhidrosis.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004; 51: 274-286
- Primary focal hyperhidrosis: disease characteristics and functional impairment.Dermatology. 2006; 212: 343-353
- Biology of sweat glands and their disorders I. Normal sweat gland function.J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989; 20: 537-563
- Anatomy of the sweat glands, pharmacology of botulinum toxin, and distinctive syndromes associated with hyperhidrosis.Clin Dermatol. 2004; 22: 40-44
- Anatomy and histology of sweat glands.in: Almeida A.R. Hexsel D.M. Hyperhidrosis and botulinum toxin. Edition of authors, São Paulo (Brazil)2004: 3-6
- Ultrastructure of the hyperhidrotic eccrine sweat gland.Br J Dermatol. 2001; 145: 298-301
- The secretory clear cell of the eccrine sweat gland as the probable source of excess sweat production in hyperhidrosis.Exp Dermatol. 2011; 20: 1017-1020
- Innervation and receptor profiles of the human apocrine (epitrichial) sweat gland: routes for intervention in bromhidrosis.Br J Dermatol. 2008; 159: 653-660
- Hyperhidrosis: a review of current management.Plast Reconstr Surg. 2002; 110: 222-228
- Biology of sweat glands and their disorders II. Disorders of sweat gland function.J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989; 20: 713-726
- The absence of apoeccrine glands in the human axilla has disease pathogenetic implications, including axillary hyperhidrosis.Br J Dermatol. 2007; 156: 1278-1286
- Do we have apoeccrine sweat glands?.Int J Cosmet Sci. 2008; 30: 67-68
- Same-patient prospective comparison of Botox versus Dysport for treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis and review of literature.J Drugs Dermatol. 2011; 10: 1013-1015
- Handling botulinum toxins: an updated literature review.Dermatol Surg. 2011; 37: 1553-1565
- Botulinum toxin type A and B improve quality of life in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis.Acta Derm Venereol. 2013; 93: 335-339
- Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a 52-week multicenter double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007; 56: 604-611
- Botulinum toxin for hyperhidrosis: a review.Am J Clin Dermatol. 2009; 10: 87-102
- Botulinum toxin A for axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).N Engl J Med. 2001; 344: 488-493
- Botulinum toxin type A in treatment of bilateral primary axillary hyperhidrosis: randomised, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled trial.BMJ. 2001; 323: 596-599
- Treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A: our experience in 50 patients from 2007 to 2010.ISRN Dermatol. 2012; 2012: 702714
- Duration of efficacy increases with the repetition of botulinum toxin A injections in primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a study in 83 patients.J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013; 69: 960-964
- Hyperhidrosis: anatomy, pathophysiology and treatment with emphasis on the role of botulinum toxins.Toxins (Basel). 2013; 5: 821-840
Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/DrugSafetyInformationforHeathcareProfessionals/ucm174949.htm. Accessed October 1, 2010.
- Pilot study of the safety and efficacy of MyoblocTM (botulinum toxin type B) for treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.Int J Dermatol. 2005; 44: 418-424
- Botulinum toxin type B: a new therapy for axillary hyperhidrosis.Br J Plast Surg. 2005; 58: 228-232
- Botulinum toxin type B for treatment of axillar hyperhidrosis.J Neurol. 2002; 249: 1729-1732
- Botulinum toxin type A vs type B for axillary hyperhidrosis in a case series of patients observed for 6 months.Arch Dermatol. 2011; 147: 122-123
- Evidence-based review and assessment of botulinum neurotoxin for the treatment of secretory disorders.Toxicon. 2013; 67: 141-152
- A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of two type A botulinum toxins in the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis.Dermatol Surg. 2007; 33: 44-50
- Comparing botox and xeomin for axillar hyperhidrosis.J Neural Transm. 2010; 117: 317-319
- Dilution of botulinum toxin A in lidocaine vs. in normal saline for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: a double-blind, randomized, comparative preliminary study.J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2012; 26: 314-318
- Treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with botulinum toxin type A reconstituted in lidocaine or in normal saline: a randomized, side-by-side, double-blind study.Br J Dermatol. 2007; 156: 986-989
- Diffusion and Short-term efficacy of Botulinum toxin A after addition of hyaluronidase and its possible application for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.Dermatol Surg. 2003; 29: 533-538
- Diagnosis, impact, and management of focal hyperhidrosis: treatment review including botulinum toxin therapy.Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2007; 15 (v–vi): 17-30
- Hyperhidrosis and botulinum toxin A: patient selection and techniques.Clin Dermatol. 2004; 22: 45-52
- Povidone-iodine solution in wound treatment.Phys Ther. 1998; 78: 212-218
- Botulinum toxin and sweating.J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994; 54 ([letter]): 1437
- Definition of axillary hyperhidrosis by gravimetric assessment.Arch Dermatol. 2002; 138: 539-541
- Hyperhidrosis area and severity index.Dermatol Surg. 2008; 34 ([letter]): 1744-1745
- Long-term quantitative benefits of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.Dermatol Surg. 2002; 28: 480-483
- The influence of needle size on pain perception in patients treated with botulinum toxin A injections for axillary hyperhidrosis.Acta Derm Venereol. 2011; 91: 72-74
- Complication, adverse reaction, and insights with the use of botulinum toxin.Dermatol Surg. 2003; 29: 549-556
- Multi-injection plate for botulinum toxin application in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.Dermatol Surg. 2001; 27: 543-544
- A new multiple site marking grid for botulinum toxin application in the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis.Br J Dermatol. 2006; 154: 375-391
- Topically applied botulinum toxin type A for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis: results of a randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled study.Dermatol Surg. 2007; 33: S76-S80
- Effect of transdermal botulinum toxin on sweat secretion in subjects with idiopathic palmar hyperhidrosis.Br J Dermatol. 2009; 160: 721-723
Funding Sources: None.
Conflict of Interest: Dr A.R. Trindade de Almeida has been a consultant to Allergan, Inc and has participated in clinical trials for Allergan and Galderma; Dr S. Montagner has no conflicts of interest.