Advertisement

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

An Update in Staging, Management, and Postoperative Surveillance Strategies
Published:October 27, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2022.07.004

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Dermatologic Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Karia P.S.
        • Han J.
        • Schmults C.D.
        Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: estimated incidence of disease, nodal metastasis, and deaths from disease in the United States, 2012.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013; 68: 957-966
        • D'Orazio J.
        • Jarrett S.
        • Amaro-Ortiz A.
        • et al.
        UV radiation and the skin.
        Int J Mol Sci. 2013; 14: 12222-12248
        • Demers A.A.
        • Nugent Z.
        • Mihalcioiu C.
        • et al.
        Trends of nonmelanoma skin cancer from 1960 through 2000 in a Canadian population.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005; 53: 320-328
        • Rogers H.W.
        • Weinstock M.A.
        • Feldman S.R.
        • et al.
        Incidence Estimate of Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer (Keratinocyte Carcinomas) in the U.S. Population, 2012.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2015; 151: 1081-1086
        • Mudigonda T.
        • Levender M.M.
        • O'Neill J.L.
        • et al.
        Incidence, risk factors, and preventative management of skin cancers in organ transplant recipients: a review of single- and multicenter retrospective studies from 2006 to 2010.
        Dermatol Surg. 2013; 39: 345-364
        • Scott J.F.
        • Brough K.R.
        • Grigoryan K.V.
        • et al.
        Risk Factors for Keratinocyte Carcinoma in Recipients of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplants.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2020; 156: 631-639
        • O'Reilly Zwald F.
        • Brown M.
        Skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients: advances in therapy and management: part I. Epidemiology of skin cancer in solid organ transplant recipients.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011; 65: 253-261
        • Krathen M.S.
        • Gottlieb A.B.
        • Mease P.J.
        Pharmacologic immunomodulation and cutaneous malignancy in rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis.
        J Rheumatol. 2010; 37: 2205-2215
        • Hagen J.W.
        • Pugliano-Mauro M.A.
        Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Risk in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Undergoing Thiopurine Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
        Dermatol Surg. 2018; 44: 469-480
        • Lai M.
        • Pampena R.
        • Cornacchia L.
        • et al.
        Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a systematic review of the literature.
        Int J Dermatol. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.15813
        • Brewer J.D.
        • Shanafelt T.D.
        • Khezri F.
        • et al.
        Increased incidence and recurrence rates of nonmelanoma skin cancer in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a Rochester Epidemiology Project population-based study in Minnesota.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015; 72: 302-309
        • Jambusaria-Pahlajani A.
        • Kanetsky P.A.
        • Karia P.S.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of AJCC tumor staging for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and a proposed alternative tumor staging system.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2013; 149: 402-410
        • Brougham N.D.
        • Dennett E.R.
        • Cameron R.
        • et al.
        The incidence of metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and the impact of its risk factors.
        J Surg Oncol. 2012; 106: 811-815
        • Brodland D.G.
        • Zitelli J.A.
        Surgical margins for excision of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992; 27: 241-248https://doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(92)70178-i
        • Rowe D.E.
        • Carroll R.J.
        • Day Jr., C.L.
        Prognostic factors for local recurrence, metastasis, and survival rates in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, ear, and lip. Implications for treatment modality selection.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1992; 26: 976-990https://doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(92)70144-5
        • Work G.
        • Invited R.
        • Kim J.Y.S.
        • et al.
        Guidelines of care for the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018; 78: 560-578https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2017.10.007
        • Ruiz E.S.
        • Karia P.S.
        • Besaw R.
        • et al.
        Performance of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Manual, 8th Edition vs the Brigham and Women's Hospital Tumor Classification System for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2019; 155: 819-825
        • Tokez S.
        • Koekelkoren F.H.J.
        • Baatenburg de Jong R.J.
        • et al.
        Assessment of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Baseline Clinical Examination and Ultrasonographic Imaging for the Detection of Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.4990
        • Eickstaedt J.B.
        • Fancher W.
        • Havighurst T.
        • et al.
        Lack of documentation of lymph node examination in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip.
        Arch Dermatol Res. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00403-021-02281-4
        • National Comprehensive Cancer Network
        Squamous Cell Skin Cancer (Version 1.2022).
        (Available at:) (Accessed January 2, 2022)
        • Karia P.S.
        • Jambusaria-Pahlajani A.
        • Harrington D.P.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of American Joint Committee on Cancer, International Union Against Cancer, and Brigham and Women's Hospital tumor staging for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
        J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32: 327-334https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.48.5326
        • Schmitt A.R.
        • Brewer J.D.
        • Bordeaux J.S.
        • et al.
        Staging for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma as a predictor of sentinel lymph node biopsy results: meta-analysis of American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria and a proposed alternative system.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2014; 150: 19-24https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2013.6675
        • Karia P.S.
        • Morgan F.C.
        • Califano J.A.
        • et al.
        Comparison of Tumor Classifications for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck in the 7th vs 8th Edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2018; 154: 175-181https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.3960
        • Roscher I.
        • Falk R.S.
        • Vos L.
        • et al.
        Validating 4 Staging Systems for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Population-Based Data: A Nested Case-Control Study.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2018; 154: 428-434https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.6428
        • Venables Z.C.
        • Tokez S.
        • Hollestein L.M.
        • et al.
        Validation of Four Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Staging Systems Using Nationwide Data.
        Br J Dermatol. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1111/bjd.20909
        • Gupta N.
        • Weitzman R.E.
        • Murad F.
        • et al.
        Identifying Brigham and Women's Hospital stage T2a cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas at risk of poor outcomes.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.11.046
        • Puebla-Tornero L.
        • Corchete-Sanchez L.A.
        • Conde-Ferreiros A.
        • et al.
        Performance of Salamanca refinement of the T3-AJCC8 versus the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Tubingen alternative staging systems for high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021; 84: 938-945https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.12.020
        • Maher J.M.
        • Schmults C.D.
        • Murad F.
        • et al.
        Detection of subclinical disease with baseline and surveillance imaging in high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 82: 920-926https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.10.067
        • Ruiz E.S.
        • Karia P.S.
        • Morgan F.C.
        • et al.
        The positive impact of radiologic imaging on high-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma management.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017; 76: 217-225https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2016.08.051
        • Oddone N.
        • Morgan G.J.
        • Palme C.E.
        • et al.
        Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: the Immunosuppression, Treatment, Extranodal spread, and Margin status (ITEM) prognostic score to predict outcome and the need to improve survival.
        Cancer. 2009; 115: 1883-1891https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24208
        • Williams L.S.
        • Mancuso A.A.
        • Mendenhall W.M.
        Perineural spread of cutaneous squamous and basal cell carcinoma: CT and MR detection and its impact on patient management and prognosis.
        Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001; 49: 1061-1069https://doi.org/10.1016/s0360-3016(00)01407-3
        • Balamucki C.J.
        • DeJesus R.
        • Galloway T.J.
        • et al.
        Impact of radiographic findings on for prognosis skin cancer with perineural invasion.
        Am J Clin Oncol. 2015; 38: 248-251https://doi.org/10.1097/COC.0b013e3182940ddf
        • Tomaszewski J.M.
        • Lau E.
        • Corry J.
        Utility of positron emission tomography/computed tomography for nodal staging of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
        Am J Otolaryngol. 2014; 35: 66-69https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.08.014
        • Liao L.J.
        • Lo W.C.
        • Hsu W.L.
        • et al.
        Detection of cervical lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer patients with clinically N0 neck-a meta-analysis comparing different imaging modalities.
        BMC Cancer. 2012; 12: 236https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-12-236
        • Guenette J.P.
        Radiologic Evaluation of the Head and Neck Cancer Patient.
        Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2021; 35: 863-873https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hoc.2021.05.001
        • Liu T.
        • Xu W.
        • Yan W.L.
        • et al.
        MRI for diagnosis of local residual or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which one is the best? A systematic review.
        Radiother Oncol. 2007; 85: 327-335https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2007.11.002
        • Overmark M.
        • Koskenmies S.
        • Pitkanen S.
        A Retrospective Study of Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma In situ.
        Acta Derm Venereol. 2016; 96: 64-67https://doi.org/10.2340/00015555-2175
        • Hansen J.P.
        • Drake A.L.
        • Walling H.W.
        Bowen's Disease: a four-year retrospective review of epidemiology and treatment at a university center.
        Dermatol Surg. 2008; 34: 878-883https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2008.34172.x
        • Cunningham T.J.
        • Tabacchi M.
        • Eliane J.P.
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of calcipotriol combined with 5-fluorouracil for skin cancer precursor immunotherapy.
        J Clin Invest. 2017; 127: 106-116https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI89820
        • Kuflik E.G.
        • Gage A.A.
        The five-year cure rate achieved by cryosurgery for skin cancer.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 1991; 24: 1002-1004https://doi.org/10.1016/0190-9622(91)70160-4
        • Holt P.J.
        Cryotherapy for skin cancer: results over a 5-year period using liquid nitrogen spray cryosurgery.
        Br J Dermatol. 1988; 119: 231-240https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1988.tb03205.x
        • Salim A.
        • Leman J.A.
        • McColl J.H.
        • et al.
        Randomized comparison of photodynamic therapy with topical 5-fluorouracil in Bowen's disease.
        Br J Dermatol. 2003; 148: 539-543https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05033.x
        • Patel G.K.
        • Goodwin R.
        • Chawla M.
        • et al.
        Imiquimod 5% cream monotherapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ (Bowen's disease): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006; 54: 1025-1032https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2006.01.055
        • Fink-Puches R.
        • Soyer H.P.
        • Hofer A.
        • et al.
        Long-term follow-up and histological changes of superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers treated with topical delta-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy.
        Arch Dermatol. 1998; 134: 821-826https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.134.7.821
        • Cornejo C.M.
        • Jambusaria-Pahlajani A.
        • Willenbrink T.J.
        • et al.
        Field cancerization: Treatment.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 83: 719-730https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.127
        • Rosenberg A.R.
        • Tabacchi M.
        • Ngo K.H.
        • et al.
        Skin cancer precursor immunotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma prevention.
        JCI Insight. 2019; 4https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.125476
        • Lansbury L.
        • Leonardi-Bee J.
        • Perkins W.
        • et al.
        Bath-Hextall FJ. Interventions for non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
        Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; : CD007869
        • Ad Hoc Task F.
        • Connolly S.M.
        • Baker D.R.
        • et al.
        AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012; 67: 531-550
        • Stancut E.
        • Melvin O.G.
        • Griffin R.L.
        • et al.
        Institutional Adherence to Current Mohs Surgery Appropriate Use Criteria With Reasons for Nonadherence and Recommendations for Future Versions.
        Dermatol Surg. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1097/DSS.0000000000003369
        • Tolkachjov S.N.
        • Brodland D.G.
        • Coldiron B.M.
        • et al.
        Understanding Mohs Micrographic Surgery: A Review and Practical Guide for the Nondermatologist.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 2017; 92: 1261-1271
        • Massey P.R.
        • Gupta S.
        • Rothstein B.E.
        • et al.
        Total Margin-Controlled Excision is Superior to Standard Excision for Keratinocyte Carcinoma on the Nose: A Veterans Affairs Nested Cohort Study.
        Ann Surg Onco. 2021; 28: 3656-3663
        • Stewart J.R.
        • Lang M.E.
        • Brewer J.D.
        Efficacy of nonexcisional treatment modalities for superficially invasive and in situ squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2021.07.067
        • Galles E.
        • Parvataneni R.
        • Stuart S.E.
        • et al.
        Patient-reported outcomes of electrodessication and curettage for treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014; 71: 1026-1028
        • Stratigos A.J.
        • Garbe C.
        • Dessinioti C.
        • et al.
        European interdisciplinary guideline on invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: Part 2. Treatment.
        Eur J Cancer\. 2020; 128: 83-102https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.01.008
        • Geist D.E.
        • Garcia-Moliner M.
        • Fitzek M.M.
        • et al.
        Perineural invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma: raising awareness and optimizing management.
        Dermatol Surg. 2008; 34: 1642-1651
        • Jambusaria-Pahlajani A.
        • Miller C.J.
        • Quon H.
        • et al.
        Surgical monotherapy versus surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy in high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review of outcomes.
        Dermatol Surg. 2009; 35: 574-585
        • Harris B.N.
        • Pipkorn P.
        • Nguyen K.N.B.
        • et al.
        Association of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy With Survival in Patients With Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
        JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019; 145: 153-158
        • Tanvetyanon T.
        • Padhya T.
        • McCaffrey J.
        • et al.
        Postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
        Head Neck. 2015; 37: 840-845
        • Lu S.M.
        • Lien W.W.
        Concurrent Radiotherapy With Cetuximab or Platinum-based Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
        Am J Clin Oncol. 2018; 41: 95-99
        • Tremblay-Abel V.
        • Poulin M.A.
        • Blouin M.M.
        • et al.
        Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in High-Risk Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of a Large Size Retrospective Series.
        Dermatol Surg. 2021; 47: 908-913
        • Pride R.L.D.
        • Lopez J.J.
        • Brewer J.D.
        • et al.
        Outcomes of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Primary Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
        Dermatol Surg. 2022; 48: 157-161
        • Tejera-Vaquerizo A.
        • Canueto J.
        • Llombart B.
        • et al.
        Predictive Value of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Based on the AJCC-8 and Brigham and Women's Hospital Staging Criteria.
        Dermatol Surg. 2020; 46: 857-862
        • Durham A.B.
        • Lowe L.
        • Malloy K.M.
        • et al.
        Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma on the Head and Neck.
        JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016; 142: 1171-1176
        • Lhote R.
        • Lambert J.
        • Lejeune J.
        • et al.
        Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Series of 37 Cases and Systematic Review of the Literature.
        Acta Derm Venereol. 2018; 98: 671-676
        • Ferrarotto R.
        • Amit M.
        • Nagarajan P.
        • et al.
        Pilot Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Immunotherapy in Locoregionally Advanced, Resectable Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.
        Clin Cancer Res. 2021; 27: 4557-4565
        • Wehner M.R.
        • Linos E.
        • Parvataneni R.
        • et al.
        Timing of subsequent new tumors in patients who present with basal cell carcinoma or cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2015; 151: 382-388
        • Kohli I.
        • Nicholson C.L.
        • Williams J.D.
        • et al.
        Greater efficacy of SPF 100+ sunscreen compared with SPF 50+ in sunburn prevention during 5 consecutive days of sunlight exposure: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 82: 869-877
        • Igoe D.P.
        • Amar A.
        • Schouten P.
        • et al.
        Assessment of Biologically Effective Solar Ultraviolet Exposures for Court Staff and Competitors During a Major Australian Tennis Tournament.
        Photochem Photobiol. 2019; 95: 1461-1467
        • Chen A.C.
        • Martin A.J.
        • Choy B.
        • et al.
        A Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Nicotinamide for Skin-Cancer Chemoprevention.
        N Engl J Med. 2015; 373: 1618-1626
        • Badri O.
        • Schmults C.D.
        • Karia P.S.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and Cost Analysis for Acitretin for Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Prophylaxis in Renal Transplant Recipients.
        Dermatol Surg. 2021; 47: 125-126
        • Chen K.
        • Craig J.C.
        • Shumack S.
        Oral retinoids for the prevention of skin cancers in solid organ transplant recipients: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
        Br J Dermatol. 2005; 152: 518-523
        • Bavinck J.N.
        • Tieben L.M.
        • Van der Woude F.J.
        • et al.
        Prevention of skin cancer and reduction of keratotic skin lesions during acitretin therapy in renal transplant recipients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
        J Clin Oncol. 1995; 13: 1933-1938https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.1995.13.8.1933