Advertisement

Unconscious Bias

Published:October 27, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2022.08.003

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Dermatologic Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Tavernise Sabrina
        • Gebeloff Robert
        Census Shows Sharply Growing Numbers of Hispanic, Asian and Multiracial Americans.” The New York Times, The New York Times.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 1, 2022)
      1. Minorities expected to be majority in 2050.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 1, 2022)
      2. U.S. Census Bureau quickFacts: United States.
        (Accessed May 2, 2022)
        • Jones J.M.
        LGBT identification in U.S. ticks up to 7.1%. Gallup.com.
        (Available at:) (Accessed May 2, 2022)
      3. Association of American Medical Colleges. Underrepresented in medicine definition.
        (Available at:) (Accessed 10 April 2022)
      4. Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC). AAMC facts & figures 2019; diversity in medical education.
        (Available at:) (Accessed 10 April 2022)
        • Pandya A.G.
        • Alexis A.F.
        • Berger T.G.
        • et al.
        Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in dermatology: A call to action.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016; 74: 584-587
        • Lu J.D.
        • Tiwana S.
        • Das P.
        • et al.
        Gender and racial underrepresentation in academic dermatology positions in the United States: A retrospective, cross sectional study from 2007 to 2018.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 83: 1513-1516
        • Banaji M.R.
        • Greenwald A.G.
        Implicit gender stereotyping in judgments of fame.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995; 68: 181
        • Banaji M.R.
        • Greenwald A.G.
        Blindspot: hidden biases of good people.
        1st edition. Delacorte Press, USA2013
        • Byington C.L.
        • Lee V.
        Addressing disparities in academic medicine: Moving forward.
        JAMA. 2015; 314: 1139-1141
        • Smedley B.D.
        • Stith Butler A.
        • Bristow L.R.
        In the nation's compelling interest: ensuring diversity in the health-care workforce.
        National Academies Press, Washington, DC2004
        • Filippou P.
        • Mahajan S.
        • Deal A.
        • et al.
        The Presence of Gender Bias in Letters of Recommendations Written for Urology Residency Applicants.
        Urology. 2019; 134: 56-61https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2019.05.065
        • Powers A.
        • Gerull K.M.
        • Rothman R.
        • et al.
        Race- and Gender-Based Differences in Descriptions of Applicants in the Letters of Recommendation for Orthopaedic Surgery Residency.
        JB JS Open Access. 2020; 5 (e20.00023)
        • Boatright D.
        • Ross D.
        • O'Connor P.
        • et al.
        Racial Disparities in Medical Student Membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society.
        JAMA Intern Med. 2017; 177: 659-665
        • Ross D.A.
        • Boatright D.
        • Nunez-Smith M.
        • et al.
        Differences in words used to describe racial and gender groups in Medical Student Performance Evaluations.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12: e0181659
        • Colson E.R.
        • Pérez M.A.
        • Blaylock L.
        • et al.
        Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis Case Study: A Process for Understanding and Addressing Bias in Clerkship Grading.
        Acad Med. 2020; 95: S131-S135
        • Farshchian M.
        • Grant-Kels J.M.
        Ethics of documenting patient's race and ethnicity in dermatology clinical notes and presentations.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2022; (S0190-9622(22)00274-282)
        • Ware O.R.
        • Dawson J.E.
        • Shinohara M.M.
        • et al.
        Racial limitations of Fitzpatrick skin type.
        Cutis. 2020; 105: 77-80
        • Jasmine R.M.
        • Dawd S.S.
        • Victor Robert
        • et al.
        The Impact of Unconscious Bias in Healthcare: How to Recognize and Mitigate It.
        J Infect Dis. 2019; 220 (S62–S73)
        • Carroll S.
        Respecting and empowering vulnerable populations: contemporary terminology.
        J Nurse Pract. 2019; 15: 228-231
        • Goddu P.A.
        • O’Conor K.J.
        • et al.
        Do Words Matter? Stigmatizing Language and the Transmission of Bias in the Medical Record.
        J Gen Intern med. 2018; 33: 685-691
        • Sun M.
        • Oliwa T.
        • Peek M.E.
        • et al.
        Negative Patient Descriptors: Documenting Racial Bias In The Electronic Health Record.
        Health Aff (Millwood). 2022; 41: 203-211
        • Taylor S.C.
        Meeting the Unique Dermatologic Needs of Black Patients.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2019; 155: 1109-1110
        • Shen M.J.
        • Peterson E.B.
        • Costas-Muñiz R.
        • et al.
        The effects of race and racial concordance on patient–physician communication: A systematic review of the literature.
        J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018; 5: 117-140
        • Wilson B.N.
        • Murase J.
        • Slikwa D.
        • et al.
        Bridging racial differences in the clinical encounter: How implicit bias and stereotype threat contribute to health care disparities in the dermatology clinic.
        Int J women’s Dermatol. 2021; 7: 2 139-144
        • Takeshita J.
        • Wang S.
        • Loren A.W.
        • et al.
        Association of Racial/Ethnic and Gender Concordance Between Patients and Physicians With Patient Experience Ratings.
        JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3 (e2024583)
        • Barbieri J.S.
        • Shin D.B.
        • Wang S.
        • et al.
        Association of Race/Ethnicity and Sex With Differences in Health Care Use and Treatment for Acne.
        JAMA Dermatol. 2020; 156: 312-319
        • Callender V.D.
        • Alexis A.F.
        • Daniels S.R.
        • et al.
        Racial differences in clinical characteristics, perceptions and behaviors, and psychosocial impact of adult female acne.
        J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014; 7: 19-31
        • Gorelick J.
        • Daniels S.R.
        • Kawata A.K.
        • et al.
        Acne-related quality of life among female adults of different races/ethnicities.
        J Dermatol Nurses Assoc. 2015; 7: 154-162
        • Constantinescu F.
        • Goucher S.
        • Weinstein A.
        • et al.
        Understanding why rheumatoid arthritis patient treatment preferences differ by race.
        Arthritis Rheum. 2009; 61: 413-418
        • Boulware L.E.
        • Cooper L.A.
        • Ratner L.E.
        • et al.
        Race and trust in the health care system.
        Public Health Rep. 2003; 118: 358-365https://doi.org/10.1016/S0033-3549(04)50262-5
        • LaVeist T.A.
        • Nickerson K.J.
        • Bowie J.V.
        Attitudes about racism, medical mistrust, and satisfaction with care among African American and white cardiac patients.
        Med Care Res Rev. 2000; 57: 146-161
        • Hall W.J.
        • Chapman M.V.
        • Lee K.M.
        • et al.
        Implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care professionals and its influence on health care outcomes: a systematic review.
        Am J Public Health. 2015; 105: e60-e76
        • Tripathi R.
        • Archibald L.K.
        • Mazmudar R.S.
        • et al.
        Racial differences in time to treatment for melanoma.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020; 83: 854-859
        • Greenwald A.G.
        • Lai C.K.
        Implicit Social Cognition.
        Annu Rev Psychol. 2020; 71: 419-445https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010419-050837
        • Fiske S.T.
        The continuum model and the stereotype content mode.
        in: Van Lange P.A.M. Kruglanski A.W. Higgins E.T. Handbook of theories of social psychology. vol. 1. Sage Publications, 2012: 267-288
        • Hagiwara N.
        • Kron F.W.
        • Scerbo M.W.
        • et al.
        A call for grounding implicit bias training in clinical and translational frameworks.
        Lancet. 2020; 395: 1457-1460
        • Forscher P.S.
        • Lai C.K.
        • Axt J.R.
        • et al.
        A meta-analysis of procedures to change implicit measures.
        J Pers Soc Psychol. 2019; 117: 522-559
        • Goldin C.
        • Rouse C.
        Orchestrating impartiality: the impact of “blind” auditions on female musicians.
        Am Econ Rev. 2000; 90: 715-741
        • Uhlmann E.L.
        • Cohen G.L.
        Constructed criteria: redefining merit to justify discrimination.
        Psychol Sci. 2015; 16: 474-480