Advertisement

Exploring Race, Racism, and Structural Racism in Medicine

Published:October 27, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2022.08.005

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Dermatologic Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Hacking I.
        Why race still matters.
        Daedalus. 2005; 134: 102-116
        • Lewontin R.C.
        The apportionment of human diversity.
        in: Evolutionary biology. Springer, New York1972: 381-398
        • Rosenberg N.A.
        • Pritchard J.K.
        • Weber J.L.
        • et al.
        Genetic structure of human populations.
        Science. 2002; 298: 2381-2385
        • Jablonski N.G.
        • Chaplin G.
        The colours of humanity: the evolution of pigmentation in the human lineage.
        Philosophical Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci. 2017; 372: 20160349
        • Goodman A.H.
        Why genes don't count (for racial differences in health).
        Am J Public Health. 2000; 90: 1699
        • Smith R.
        Types of mankind: polygenism and scientific racism in the nineteenth century United States scientific community. Pittsburg State University Digital Commons. (2014) Electronic Thesis Collection.
        (Available at:) (Accessed July 17, 2022)
        • Menand L.
        Morton, Agassiz, and the Origins of Scientific Racism in the United States. Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. 2001/2002. 111-113.
        (Available at:) (Accessed July 17, 2022)
        • Nott J.C.
        An Essay on the Natural History of Mankind: Viewed in Connection with Negro Slavery: delivered before the Southern Rights Association, 14th December, 1850.
        • Shields A.
        • Bhatia S.
        Darwin on race, gender, and culture.
        Am Psychol. 2009; 64: 111
        • Hogarth R.A.
        Medicalizing Blackness: making racial difference in the Atlantic world, 1780-1840.
        UNC Press Books, Chapel Hill, NC2017
        • Collins C.
        What Is White Privilege, Really? Recognizing white privilege begins with truly understanding the term itself.
        Teaching Tolerance. 2018; : 39-41
      1. McIntosh P., White Privilege and Male Privilege: a personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in women’s studies, 1988, Working paper No. 189. Wellesley, MA: Wellesley Center for Research on Women.

        • McIntosh P.
        White privilege: unpacking the invisible Knapsack.
        Peace & Freedom, Philadelphia, PA1989: 10-12
      2. Allen TW. John Brown Commemoration Committee, 100 West 82., New York, 24, New York, “A Call to join with sponsors of this Call in a John Brown Memorial Pilgrimage to Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia on Saturday, December 4, 1965, cited in Perry, Jeffrey B. (July 2010).

        • Bailey Z.D.
        • Krieger N.
        • Agénor M.
        • et al.
        Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions.
        Lancet. 2017; 389: 1453-1463
        • Yearby R.
        • Clark B.
        • Figueroa J.F.
        Structural Racism In Historical And Modern US Health Care Policy.
        Health Aff. 2022; 41: 187-194
        • Yearby R.
        Structural racism and health disparities: reconfiguring the social determinants of health framework to include the root cause.
        J Law Med Ethics. 2020; 48: 518-526
        • Ko L.
        Reproductive Rights: Unwanted Sterilization and Eugenics Programs in the United States. In: Beyond The Films. 2016.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 30, 2022)
      3. The Pill: The Puerto Rico Pill Trials. In: American Experience.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 1, 2022)
      4. 1976: Government Admits Unauthorized Sterilization of Indian Women. Native Voices. US National Library of Medicine.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 1, 2022)
        • Stern A.M.
        Forced Sterilization policies in the US targeted minorities and those with disabilities – and lasted into the 21st century. Institute for Healthcare Policy & Innovation. University of Michigan. 2020.
      5. The U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 1, 2022)
      6. Structural Racism is a Public Health Crisis: Impact on the Black Community. American Public Health Association, 2020.
        (Available at:) (Accessed April 20, 2022)
        • Reyes M.
        The Disproportional Impact of COVID-19 on African Americans.
        Health Hum Rights. 2020; 22: 299-307
        • Homandberg L.K.
        • Fuller-Rowell T.E.
        • et al.
        Experiences of Discrimination and Urinary Catecholamine Concentrations: Longitudinal Associations in a College Student Sample.
        Ann Behav Med. 2020; 54: 843-852
        • Laurencin C.T.
        • Walker J.M.
        Racial Profiling is a Public Health and Health Disparities Issue. Published in final form.
        J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2020 Jun; 7: 393-397
        • Yearby R.
        Structural Racism: The Root Cause of the Social Determinants of Health. Bill of Health: Examining the intersection of health law, biotechnology, and bioethics. 2020 Sep.
        (Available at:) (Accessed July 16, 2022)
        • Braveman P.A.
        • Arkin E.
        • Proctor D.
        • et al.
        Systemic and Structural Racism: Definitions, Examples, Health Damages, and Approaches to Dismantling.
        Health Aff. 2022; 41 (Available at:)
      7. Civil Rights in America: Racial Discrimination in Housing. National Park Service. U.S. Department of the Interior national Historic Landmarks Program.
        • Churchwell K.
        • Elkind M.S.V.
        • Benjamin R.M.
        • et al.
        Call to Action: Structural Racism as a Fundamental Driver of Health Disparities: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2020; 142: 142.e4-8
        • Burke M.
        Moving Beyond the Statements: The Need for Action to Address Structural Racism at Predominantly White.
        Institutions. 2020; 5: 174-179
        • Baciu A.
        • Negussie Y.
        • Geller A.
        • et al.
        The Root Causes of Health Inequity. In: Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity.2017.
        • Solomon S.R.
        • Atalay A.J.
        • Osman N.Y.
        Diversity Is Not Enough: Advancing a Framework for Antiracism in Medical Education.
        Acad Med. 2021; 96: 1513-1517
        • Diaz T.
        • Navarro J.R.
        • Chen E.H.
        An Institutional Approach to Fostering Inclusion and Addressing Racial Bias: Implications for Diversity in Academic Medicine.
        Reaching Learn Med. 2019; 32: 110-116
        • Frey W.H.
        The US will become ‘minority white’ in 2045, Census projects. The Avenue - Brookings. 2018.
        (Available at:) (Accessed May 1, 2022)
        • Shim R.S.
        Dismantling Structural Racism in Academic Medicine: A Skeptical Optimism.
        Acad Med. 2020; 95: 1793-1795
        • LaVeist T.A.
        • et al.
        Is Doctor-Patient Race Concordance Associated with Greater Satisfaction with Care?.
        J Health Soc Behav. 2002; 43: 296-306
        • Shen M.J.
        • et al.
        The Effects of Race and Racial Concordance on Patient-Physician Communication: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
        J Racial Ethnic Health Disparities. 2018; 5: 117-140
        • Pandya A.G.
        • Alexis A.F.
        • Berger T.G.
        • et al.
        Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in dermatology: A call to action.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015; 74: 584-587